Racial Harmony and Well-Being: Creating Healthier Relations
by J. Alewyn Nel, Nasima M. H. Carrim, and Blessing Chabaya Department of Human Resource Management, University of Pretoria
Most countries use labor legislation and government policies to encourage diversity and inclusion and improve race relations in businesses and organizations. However, in some organizations, overt racism has been replaced by more subtle forms of discrimination, such as hostile words and gestures, passive-aggressive comments, or failing to provide equal support to employees from non-dominant groups. These types of behaviors have been given new terms, such as modern racism, aversive racism, ambivalent racism, and everyday racism. Racial inequality has a long history, is deep-rooted, and leads to both overt and subtle forms of racism in the workplace, which may heighten further racial exclusivity. As racial tensions escalate, we often look for quick, short-term ways to overcome these issues. This is not ideal, since the focus is put on isolated issues, rather than broadening the scope of investigation to the organizational and social environment, which is responsible for breeding these types of offensive societal behaviors and attitudes.
Human beings typically observe and experience their world through the lens of their own learned and conditioned behavior, cultivated by their social environment and bringing those elements into their place of work. The late president of South Africa, Nelson Mandela endorsed forgiveness and equality, and stated in his book Long Walk to Freedom: “No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.”
Nelson Mandela’s perspective is similar to the Afrocentric philosophy known as Ubuntu, which assumes that people share a universal bond by being inclusive and contributing to the greater good of humanity. In a world driven by materialism and personal ambitions, it seems that most of humanity has lost the spirit of Ubuntu. Across the world, the exclusion of certain groups by other groups from sharing in economic, educational and political development, facilitated the rise of divide between humanity and the view of race as a social class division. This divide spilled over to the place of work, where representation of race is not equally distributed across all organizations, especially in senior and executive management positions.
Research indicates that continuous exposure to overt and covert discrimination can harm employee well-being by increasing the likelihood of various physiological and psychological problems such as headaches, high levels of absenteeism, a lack of morale and work performance, decreased self-esteem, emotional distress, and disinterest. However, when the organization develops an inclusive and racially harmonious environment, then then well-being of employees will be enhanced. Nelson Mandela’s quote gives us hope that we are not lost, but that a collective good and drive is needed to facilitate and sustain racial harmony.
Strategies for Racial Harmony in the Workplace
Organizations can implement a number of strategies to encourage inclusiveness and racial harmony.
Mindset Change Initiatives
As Nelson Mandela said, if people can be taught to hate they can be taught to love. This means moving from traditional diversity training initiatives to more specific racial harmony workshops as learning interventions for a sense of harmony to be cultivated within individuals and groups. A racial harmony workshop is actively focused on reducing racial bias and microaggressions, and promote cohesion across racial groups.
Creating Awareness and Mindfulness-based Interventions
These interventions allow managers, groups and individuals to be aware and mindful of social and racial conflict and develop the necessary sensitivities of being in a multicultural context. Managers in the workplace also need to be aware of their implicit and unconscious actions that promote racial biases. Mindfulness helps us to see that our racial identities are not simply given to us by other but that we also have a hand in creating them. As such, these social constructions can also dissolve and be reshaped in the workplace toward building bonds of trust that bridge our racial differences and well-being.
Barriers to racial harmony are often embedded in cultural norms and social systems. Organizational cultures may need to be more transformative toward an inclusive and accommodating cultural orientation where diverse functional task teams and policies are established. This assists in the creation of shared memories and trust as well as nurturing acceptance which may improve employee racial harmony and lead to overall physical and psychological well-being.
Establishment of a Transparent Meritocracy System
Establish a system of rewards where every employee has a fair chance to succeed based on their effort and talent without bias toward any race. This can result in improved racial harmony and well-being and the achievement of performance goals and in-role expectations.
These strategies will not guarantee racial harmony but will require the goodwill and commitment of everyone in the organization and will need to be monitored and evaluated. In reflection, it may be a small stepping stone to achieve racial harmony, but also provides us the opportunity to better understand and appreciate the overt and covert challenges, opportunities, and privileges in order to facilitate acceptance and a deeper consideration for all humanity.
Carrim, N. M. H. (2019). Minority employees’ ethnic identity in the workplace. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Business and Management (pp. 1-21).
Changer, S. (2020). Including racism in the discussion of wellbeing at work. Available from: https://www.socialeurope.eu/including-racism-in-the-discussion-of-wellbeing-at-work
Choi, S., Rainey, H. G. (2014). Organizational fairness and diversity management in public organizations: Does fairness matter in managing diversity? Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34(4), 307–331.
De Castro, A. B., Gee, G. C., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2008). Workplace discrimination and health among Filipinos in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 98(3), 520-526.
Lee, H. W & Kim, E. 2020. Workforce diversity and firm performance: Relational coordination as a mediator and structural empowerment and multisource feedback as moderators. Human Resource Management, 59(1), 5-23.
Lim, S., Yang, W. W., Leong, C.-H., & Hong, J. (2014). Reconfiguring the Singapore identity space: Beyond racial harmony and survivalism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 43, 13–21.
Okechukwu, C. A., Souza, K., Davis, K. D., & De Castro, A. B. (2014). Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the workplace: contribution of workplace injustice to occupational health disparities. American journal of industrial medicine, 57(5), 573-586.
Salter, P. S., Adams, G., & Perez, M. J. (2018). Racism in the structure of everyday worlds: A cultural-psychological perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 150–155.
Williams, M. T., Kanter, J. W., Pena, A., Ching, T. H. W, & Oshin, L. (2020). Reducing microaggressions and promoting interracial connection: The racial harmony workshop. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 16, 153 – 161.